Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems.
The Real Power of Giant Snakes
Dear readers and lovers of animals, giant snakes are predators and act as the perfect extraordinary machines. Inspire terror in our nightmares, but you have to separate fact from fiction movie or the law.
Snakes have no limbs, but act with surprising speed. They are cold-blooded animals that can reach a length of 10 meters (I mean the reticulated python, the longest snake in the world) and weigh 140 kilograms (I mean green Anaconda, the largest snake on earth).
Depending on the species found in water, they attack from above and even creep into the city: the urbanization continues it is usurping their territory.
The legitimate fear that man has of this animal is that giant snakes need to feed on prey giants and therefore could be counted even the man himself.
So, are predators in South America that scour the swamps feeding on prey even at 45 kilograms or more. The anaconda has infrared sensors on the nose that enable it to locate prey. The skin of the snake has the same sensitivity of human fingers as consisting of many nerves that allow him to feel the vibrations.
The forked tongue is used to analyze the airborne chemicals dissolved in air to determine the most appropriate and safe path to follow to get close to the target.
Contracting the muscles, the anaconda is able to rise for more than a meter above the water and opens his mouth to 180 degrees. Due to their tubular structure, the snakes are able to act in silence and crush their prey. The animal’s body has 300 vertebrae and ribs 600 to support the weight and 10,000 muscle. When the giant snake eats a giant prey, her stomach expands to contain it.
The wolf belongs to the family Canidae, carnivores like dogs. Among the canids, the wolf is the largest in size: length between 130 and 160 cm., Height between 80 and 110 cm. The color of its coat varies by age and seasons usually yellowish-gray or reddish-brown. The wolf has a canine teeth characterized by sharp, long and curved inwards. This animal reaches a maximum of 10 years of living in freedom and 17 in captivity. The weight of wolves varies geographically; on average weight for Eurasian wolf is 38.5 kg for the North American wolf is 36 kg for the Indian wolf and the wolf Arabic is 25 pounds, even though – rarely – have been identified in Alaska and Canada, some specimens weighing over 77 kg. A wild specimen was killed in 1939 in Alaska, reached the record weight of 80 kg.
The forehead is large, the jaws very strong, the eyes are clear, generally of a different color and cut slightly oblique. The facial mask of an adult wolf extends around the upper and lower lips and the color is creamy white, while in young individuals may be incomplete or dark near the muzzle. The ears generally have a more lateral attachment and are longer and wider. Usually she did not limp and fell along the sides of the head, but keeps them standing along the profile of the head. The hair always has a color range that includes anthracite color from brown to light brown, but also black, beige, white or fawn. On the back the color is beige with black tips on the top of the front legs there is often a conspicuous black stripe and then the chest is almost always tan. Very voracious carnivores and belong to the order stated superpredator because it feeds on other carnivores.
The wolf lives in packs, with a strongly hierarchical social structure, the pack is led by two individuals who are at the tip of the social pyramid, the alpha male and alpha female. The alpha pair (of which only one component can be the “head”) have more freedom than the rest of the pack, even though the two are not leaders in the human sense of the term: alfa individuals not give orders to other wolves; rather, they have the freedom to choose what to do, when to do, where to go, when to go. The rest of the pack, which has a strong sense of community, usually follows them.
Although most of the alpha pair is monogamous, there may be some exceptions, an individual may prefer alpha mating with a wolf of minor importance in the social scale, especially if it has very close ties of kinship with the other alpha ( brother or sister, for example). It was noted that if a specimen Alfa dies, the partner or the partner often does not form a new pair with another subject, but stands alone to lead the pack. However, sometimes it can happen that the wolf or the wolf widow takes a new mate.
Usually, only the alpha pair is able to raise a litter, the other wolves of the pack may breed, but usually do not have the resources necessary to bring the pups to maturity. All the wolves of the pack assist the growth of pups. The young, when they become adults, they can choose whether to remain within the herd and help to raise offspring, an option, usually selected by females, or disperse, considered choice rather than by other males.
A new pack is formed when a specimen leaves his flock of birth and claim his territory. The lone wolf may travel in search of other individual even for very long distances. Individuals who are dispersed must avoid the territories of other wolves because intruders on occupied territories are already chased away or killed.
The packs of wolves hunt in cooperative means any large herbivore is found within their territory, this means that their hunting techniques require that different individuals have different roles but all are essential to the success of the hunt, but the specimens are confined to solitary hunt small prey because they were incapable of attacking large animals. Through close cooperation, a pack of wolves is able to pursue a big prey for several hours before surrendering, although the success rate of this type of hunting is very low.
The lone wolf, instead, are dependent on small prey: wolf catches throwing on top of it is blocked on the ground with his front paws, a technique shared by almost all canids such as foxes and coyotes. Often prey of wolves are moose, caribou, deer and other large ungulates but also hunt rodents and small animals, albeit limited, because a wolf needs to survive, on average, from 1.3 to 4.5 kg of meat per day. The wolves are not able to eat every day, so when they have the chance, they come to swallow also 9 kg of meat.
When hunting large prey, wolves attacking from all directions, focusing especially on the neck and sides of the animal. Usually, the prey animals are too old, injured, or too young, but even healthy animals may occasionally succumb. The habitat preferred by the wolf is characterized by areas of lowland forest, montain forest and clearings. Today is widespread, especially in more remote regions of the northern hemisphere.
A wolf has on average a hunting area of 100 km . To find enough food in a territory or inhospitable desert, a herd may come to occupy an area of 2500 km.
Adaptations to an extreme environment?
The desert is one of the most hostile environments on Earth is very hot during the day, you get to 60 degrees C, but is also cold at night in winter, you can get to -45 ° C, i.e there are large temperature and no water. In environments where no water, no vegetation or animals, yet even in an environment as difficult, there are life forms that have adapted: the camels are surely among them.
One thing that the camel off very well and save water lost only 1.3 liters of water a day with the faces (a cow loses thirty!). Moreover camels sweat very little because they can adjust their body temperature to the outside, making it oscillate between 34 ° C and 42 ° C without harmful effects. Another mammal would not permit either such large swings (we humans with a variation of only 1 ° C are pretty bad!), Or body temperatures so high, the brain would be affected too much. Camels have instead a system that allows them to cool the blood directly to the head.
With these adaptations these animals can withstand up to a month without drinking, but because they can get water metabolizing, or transformed, which keep the grease in the moguls, each of them is capable to contain over 10 kg of fat. The camels bear not only well water shortage, but when they take the opportunity to reinstate immediately available reserves, in just 3 minutes drink 200 liters of water! Any other animal would suffer a shock drinking so much water in so little time: the cells, especially red blood cells burst, with serious consequences easily imaginable. The red cells of camels are ovoid (rather than round), very resistant and do not undergo alterations.
Finding water in the desert is difficult, but finding food is not very simple. For this reason cammeli have the humps which accumulate large reserves of fat that can be useful to them during periods when food is scarce. It is necessary to take advantage of leaves and grass when they are available, eat as much as possible and building up valuable energy that will be useful in the future. Even in the midst of a sandstorm the camelids have adequate defenses: the nose is completely bolt (see photo), the ears are small and are fitted with long, thick hair, like the eyes have long and thick eyelashes as protection from sand .
The bee is the most studied and admired animal society. Normally live in a hive a queen, the only fertile female, 40 000 – 100 000 workers, sterile females for the maintenance and defense of the colony, and, between April and July (in Europe), from 500 to 2,000 males (also called bees or drones), the latter used exclusively for breeding. The cell is a cell very real. where the queen is reared. The queen was remarkably prolific, has the task to spawn and to ensure the cohesion of the colony, it is the first to flicker from his cell, is larger than the workers and drones, is provided with a sting or sting, which uses almost exclusively to kill rival queens, his sisters, also ready to flicker.
Unlike the workers, it has no apparatus to collect the pollen, glands and pharyngeal glands ceripare. The queen can live 4 or 5 years. In connection with his intense reproductive activity has a higher metabolism than women workers, and has the most developed cardiac corpora, while the corpora beside less developed than in workers. Males have only the task to fertilize new queens, they are larger than workers, but smaller than the queen, have ligula much shorter than that of workers, and therefore are unable to suck the nectar from flowers, and fall short of ‘Sting, apparatus for collecting pollen, glands and pharyngeal glands ceripare. The workers are monomorphic and monomegetica a caste, which divides the various social activities according to age groups, corresponding to cycles of development and regression of some exocrine glands.
The queen has a 150-180 ovarioli and a spermatheca, is distinguishable, in fact, for the most massive abdomen, the workers turn out to be capable of transmitting information with a kind of symbolic language. They play also different tasks in orderly succession of roles depending on age. The first task of the young workers that flickers from the cell in which it developed, is to cleanse and smooth cells in new construction or those that must be reused, in which the queen, but fertilized only once in life, argues incessantly eggs (from 100 to 3000 per day). Then became capable of producing the “royal jelly”, the worker bee goes to feed the larvae. At the end of the second week, not producing more food, but wax, goes on to build honeycombs.
Then go outside the hive, first for the only answer, then the important task of foraging, ie Picker nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In this capacity, she is able to transmit accurate information to classmates about the exact location of a source of food, even very distant (up to several kilometers), communicating data on the relationship between field position flowered hive and sun. His ability to perceive polarized light allows it to locate the position of the sun, even if it is covered by clouds, provided that the visible area of clear sky. At the end of a little over a month and resumed duties housewives (ventilation and heating of the nest, its cleanliness and defense, etc..), Until, feeling near the end, turns away from the community and it dies away as not to contaminate ‘s hive with her corpse. The average lifespan of a worker is around 30 – 45 days, is longer if the bee is born in autumn and winters so.
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