Global Warming

Global Warming: The Arctic ecosystem is changing

Written by Sam
Global Warming is changing Arctic Ecosystem .Global warming is a long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate system, an aspect of climate change shown by temperature measurements and by multiple effects of the warming. In this article I will describe the facts of Global Warming.


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“The Arctic as we know it now may soon be a thing of the past,” says Eric Post, a professor of biology at Penn State University, who leads a large team of international scientists to investigate the biological response to warming of the Arctic global.

The team collected extensive documentation concerning animals and plants, and their response to climate change, finding that the warming is happening in ‘Arctic over the last 150 years is having critical effects on the fauna and flora. For example, in the last 20-30 years, the seasonal ice cover has shrunk to the pole of 45,000 square kilometers each year. Reduction which is also manifested in the eternal ice on Earth.

“The land and marine species are suffering the consequences as a result of human activities that take place thousands of miles away,” says Post, “It seems that no matter where you look – on land, at the ‘air or sea – we are seeing rapid changes “. The study shows that in fact some species of the Arctic and depend critically on the presence of the ice cap are facing severe consequences for their survival, we are witnessing the decline of species such as seals the rings, narwhal, polar bears and walruses, which are now towards the way of extinction.

The caribou that live within the area ‘s Arctic Greenland, for example, is seeing a decline in the population are no longer able to synchronize with the seasonal rhythms and understand when the plants grow again, making it difficult to procurement of food . Furthermore, the period when female caribou require more food does not match with the sprouting of plants needed for their livelihood and condemned to death many specimens.

For other species however, as in the Norwegian Svalbard reindeer, we are witnessing a growth of mass: not finding ice in many areas first covered almost constantly, have more food available, the more chance of survival and reproduction.

The research also demonstrates how some species accustomed to living in the Arctic are moving north, such as red foxes, which are replacing the arctic foxes, endangered by the ongoing climate change at the Pole. Similarly behave plants, which are also moving into more northern areas, making the soil warmer and more subject to microbial life, making it increasingly possible the life of shrubs in areas that are closer to the Pole.

The northward expansion of plants is also favored by the movement of deer and reindeer that, moving to areas now come “hot” and help spread seeds through their feces, also makes the soil more fertile and suitable to life. Same goes for the geese, which have changed their migratory routes.

Whereas in the past 150 years the temperature rise was the ‘order of 1 ° C, and the effects it is causing, one can only imagine what might happen during the rise of 6 ° C provided for in this and the next century.
Given the few species that inhabit the Arctic, the risk to the ecosystem could be higher than in other places on the planet: the disappearance of a single species could endanger the survival cascade of other animals who base their diets on the extinct species .

In recent years, due to the warming of the winter season, have lost about 26% of plants in an area of 1400 square km.

Many questions yet remain unexplained: why, for example, the population of salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska, is not affected by these changes, indeed, seems to have increased in recent years?
The Arctic, contrary to what one might be led to think, is a very complex and delicate ecosystem, which need to stable conditions for the survival of life forms of plants and animals that populate it.

The Atmosphere

The Earth’s atmosphere is the envelope of gas which is the planet Earth. Has a complex structure is divided into several layers, called spheres, which in order of height are: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere, exosphere. The splitting is due to reversing the temperature gradient (physical quantity used to describe the direction and magnitude of changes in temperature). Between two spheres is an area called break.

The troposphere is the layer where they occur almost every weather and contains 80% of the total mass of gas and 99% of water vapor the air in the troposphere is heated by the earth’s surface and has a global average temperature of 15 °. The stratosphere is the atmospheric layer that lies above the troposphere and reaches a height of 50-60 km. Here is a phenomenon called thermal inversion: that is, while in the troposphere temperature decreases with height in the stratosphere increases, up to a temperature of 0 °. In the mesosphere, which ranges from 50 to 80 km altitude, the atmosphere does not suffer more the influence of Earth’s surface and is constant at all latitudes.

n this part of the atmosphere the temperature starts to decrease with height and reaches the minimum value, varying between 70-90 °. Contains, as a whole, a fraction of the mass of atmospheric gas, about 1% only, which is extremely thin, but has a thickness of several hundred kilometers and accounts for most of the ionizing radiation from space. The temperature in this layer rises with altitude, the sunlight, and getting to 1700 ° to its outer limit. The ionosphere is the band of the atmosphere in which the radiation from the sun, and much less cosmic rays from space, causing the ionization of the gas components.

The ionosphere extends between 60 and 450 km altitude and therefore belongs in part to the mesosphere. Can be further divided into sections highlighting the different electrical properties, due to variations in composition and intensity of solar radiation received. The exosphere is the outermost layer of the atmosphere, characterized by a temperature exceeding 2000 °. Gaseous particles no longer taking part in the Earth’s rotation and are lost in space. They are generally the lightest elements (hydrogen and helium) that more often leaving our atmosphere. The Earth’s atmosphere ends when the density of its gas is equal to that of interstellar space, which is about 2000-2500 km above the Earth’s surface. Here the gaseous particles are no longer attracted by Earth’s gravity and no longer taking part in the rotation of the planet.


Meteor Crater

Crater (also known as the Canyon Diablo crater, Barringer Crater, Coon Butte or Coon Montain) is a meteorite crater located in Arizona. The Meteor Crater was the first terrestrial meteorite crater, which has been ascertained the origin. Since then it has been found on Earth, the meteorite craters of more than 170 groups of craters. Geologist Daniel Moreau Barringer was the first scholar to propose that the meteorite crater hitherto considered volcanic in origin or due to explosion of gas underground. The final demonstration was given by Eugene Shoemaker in his doctoral thesis.

The Meteor Crater is located on a plateau at about 1740 meters above sea level and about 55 miles east of Flagstaff, near Winslow in northern Arizona. It is assumed that the meteorite or meteor, as astronomers call these items once they enter the atmosphere, has arrived from the north at a speed of 70,000 km / h, it was estimated that at this speed, the distance from Rome New York, was covered in about 7 minutes. Obviously, the impact was devastating, because the energy generated was equivalent to four times the Hiroshima bomb. The crater is currently a diameter of about 1,200 meters, with a raised edge irregular that reaches a height of 45 feet above the surrounding terrain and a depth of approximately 170 meters (enough to be able to hold a building of 60 storeys): these sizes are not the original one, as they have varied with the rearrangement of the land.

It was estimated that just under 300 million tons of sediment have been displaced by the violence of the impact, while the bottom of the crater was filled with about 210-240 meters of sediment forever: once the crater lake has hosted a today no longer exists. The age of the crater, measured with different systems, is reported to be about 49,000 years, then formed during the Pleistocene period, at the time, place, there was a vast plain with many plants and animals, which are been wiped out up to 150 km away and the fragments of the meteorite was reflected in the range of over 10 km. Although it may seem strange, the Meteor Crater was caused by a meteorite found small, because it had a diameter of only 25-30 meters.

The crater and the surrounding land was bought by a company formed by Barringer to try to extract the iron meteor body. The company did not achieve its original purpose and now reaps benefits by visitors to the crater, the company is still owned by descendants of Barringer.


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